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학술지 Conductivity Enhancement of Nickel Oxide by Copper Cation Codoping for Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes
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저자
김무현, 주철웅, 김종현, 최원석, 이종희, 이동찬, 조현수, 이현구, 박선중, 조남성, 조현진, 이찬우, 전덕영, 권병화
발행일
201808
출처
ACS Photonics, v.5 no.8, pp.3389-3398
ISSN
2330-4022
출판사
American Chemical Society(ACS)
DOI
https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsphotonics.8b00656
협약과제
18HB2500, 디스플레이 일체형 투명 틀렉서블 복합 생체인식 디바이스 핵심기술 개발, 안성덕
초록
We demonstrate a Cu(I) and Cu(II) codoped nickel(II) oxide (NiOx) hole injection layer (HIL) for solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes (HyLEDs). Codoped NiOx films show no degradation on optical properties in the visible range (400-700 nm) but have enhanced electrical properties compared to those of conventional Cu(II)-only doped NiOx film. Codoped NiOx film shows an over four times increased vertical current in comparison with that of NiOx in conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) configuration. Moreover, the hole injection ability of codoped NiOx is also improved, which has ionization energy of 5.45 eV, 0.14 eV higher than the value of NiOx film. These improvements are a consequence of surface chemical composition change in NiOx due to Cu cation codoping. More off-stoichiometric NiOx formed by codoping includes a large amount of Ni vacancies, which lead to better electrical properties. Density functional theory calculations also show that Cu doped NiO model structure with Ni vacancy contains diverse oxidation states of Ni based on both density of states and partial atomic charge analysis. Finally, HyLEDs of Cu codoped NiOx HIL have higher performance comparing with those of pristine NiOx. The current efficiency of devices with NiOx and codoped NiOx HIL are 11.2 and 15.4 cd/A, respectively. Therefore, codoped NiOx is applicable to various optoelectronic devices due to simple sol-gel process and enhanced doping efficiency.
키워드
codoping, hole injection layer, Nickel(II) oxide, sol-gel processed
KSP 제안 키워드
Charge analysis, Composition change, Conductivity enhancement, Copper cation, Cu-doped, Density of states, Higher performance, Hole injection layer(HIL), Injection ability, Model structure, Nickel oxide(NiO)