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학술지 Assessment of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure from Personal Measurements Considering the Body Shadowing Effect in Korean Children and Parents
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최종혁, 황정환, 임형렬, 주현주, 양희선, 이용한, Marloes Eeftens, Benjamin Struchen, Martin Roosli, 이애경, 최형도, 권종화, 하미나
Science of The Total Environment, v.627, pp.1544-1551
18HR1600, 스마트 사회 전자파 노출량 제어 기반 구축, 최형도
We aimed to assess the personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure levels of children and adults through their activities, with consideration to the body shadowing effect. We recruited 50 child-adult pairs, living in Seoul, Cheonan, and Ulsan, South Korea. RF-EMF measurements were performed between September and December 2016, using a portable exposure meter tailored to capture 14 Korean radiofrequency (RF) bands ranging from 87.5 to 5875 MHz. The participants carried the device for 48 h and kept a time-activity diary using a smartphone application in flight mode. To enhance accuracy of the exposure assessment, the body shadowing effect was compensated during the statistical analysis with the measured RF-EMF exposure. The compensation was conducted using the hybrid model that represents the decrease of the exposure level due to the body shadowing effect. A generalized linear mixed model was used to compare the RF-EMF exposure levels by subjects and activities. The arithmetic (geometric) means of the total power density were 174.9 (36.6) μW/m 2 for all participants, 226.9 (44.6) for fathers, 245.4 (44.8) for mothers, and 116.2 (30.1) for children. By compensating for the body shadowing effect, the total RF-EMF exposure increased marginally, approximately 1.4 times. Each frequency band contribution to total RF-EMF exposure consisted of 76.7%, 2.4%, 9.9%, 5.0%, 3.3%, and 2.6% for downlink, uplink, WiFi, FM Radio, TV, and WiBro bands, respectively. Among the three regions, total RF-EMF exposure was highest in Seoul, and among the activities, it was highest in the metro, followed by foot/bicycle, bus/car, and outside. The contribution of base-station exposure to total RF-EMF exposure was the highest both in parents and children. Total and base-station RF-EMF exposure levels in Korea were higher than those reported in European countries.
KSP 제안 키워드
Body shadowing, EMF exposure, EMF measurements, Electromagnetic Field Exposure, Exposure assessment, FM radio, Flight mode, Generalized linear mixed model, Hybrid Models, Power Density, Shadowing Effect