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학술지 Evolution of Morphological and Chemical Properties at p?n Junction of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with Zn(O,S) Buffer Layer as a Function of KF Postdeposition Treatment Time
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저자
이우정, 조대형, 위재형, 유종훈, 김우주, 강철, 강성준, 정용덕
발행일
202110
출처
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, v.13 no.41, pp.48611-48621
ISSN
1944-8244
출판사
American Chemical Society (ACS)
DOI
https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12636
협약과제
21JB3800, 무독성 버퍼층을 갖는 다색 플렉서블 박막 태양전지 기술 개발, 정용덕
초록
We carried out KF postdeposition treatment (PDT) on a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) layer with a process time varying from 50 to 200 s. The highest CIGS solar-cell efficiency was achieved at a KF PDT process time of 50 s; in this condition, we observed the highest level of K element at the near-surface of the CIGS layer and the perfectly passivated pinholes on the CIGS surface. At process times above 150 s, the oversupplied KF agglomerated into large islands and was subsequently eliminated during the deposition of the chemical bath deposition (CBD)-Zn(O,S) buffer layer owing to the islands' water-soluble characteristics. As a result, the growth mechanism of the CBD-Zn(O,S) layer varied as a function of KF PDT process time. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to examine the dependency of the chemical state on the KF PDT process time, and from the results, we formulated a chemical reaction model based on the shift in the elemental binding energy following deposition of the CBD-Zn(O,S) buffer layer. The chemical states of the K-In-Se phase, which have a beneficial effect on the solar-cell performance owing to the formation of durable and improved p-n junctions, are formed only at a KF PDT process time of 50 s. We derived band alignments from the XPS depth profiles by extracting the conduction- and valence-band offsets, and we used optical-pump-THz-probe spectroscopy to measure the ultrafast photocarrier lifetimes related to the defect states following KF PDT. Our key findings can be summarized as follows: (i) photocarrier transport is beneficial at a low barrier height, and (ii) the photocarrier lifetime increases when the K-In-Se phases are formed on the CIGS surface, which allows K+ ions to be effectively substituted into Cu vacancies.
키워드
chemical bath deposition Zn(O,S) buffer layer, chemical reaction, Cu(In,Ga)Se solar cell 2, K-In-Se phase, KF postdeposition treatment, optical-pump-THz-probe spectroscopy
KSP 제안 키워드
Buffer layer, CIGS layer, Cell Efficiency, Chemical bath deposition(CBD), Chemical states, Depth profile, KF PDT, Near surface, P-N junction, Petri net(PN), Reaction model