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Journal Article Evolution of Morphological and Chemical Properties at p?n Junction of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with Zn(O,S) Buffer Layer as a Function of KF Postdeposition Treatment Time
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Lee Woo Jung, Cho Daehyung, 위재형, Jonghun Yu, Woo-Ju Kim, 강철, 강성준, Chung Yong-Duck
Issue Date
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, v.13 no.41, pp.48611-48621
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Project Code
21JB3800, Development of colorful flexible thin film solar cells with nontoxic buffer layer, Chung Yong-Duck
We carried out KF postdeposition treatment (PDT) on a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) layer with a process time varying from 50 to 200 s. The highest CIGS solar-cell efficiency was achieved at a KF PDT process time of 50 s; in this condition, we observed the highest level of K element at the near-surface of the CIGS layer and the perfectly passivated pinholes on the CIGS surface. At process times above 150 s, the oversupplied KF agglomerated into large islands and was subsequently eliminated during the deposition of the chemical bath deposition (CBD)-Zn(O,S) buffer layer owing to the islands' water-soluble characteristics. As a result, the growth mechanism of the CBD-Zn(O,S) layer varied as a function of KF PDT process time. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to examine the dependency of the chemical state on the KF PDT process time, and from the results, we formulated a chemical reaction model based on the shift in the elemental binding energy following deposition of the CBD-Zn(O,S) buffer layer. The chemical states of the K-In-Se phase, which have a beneficial effect on the solar-cell performance owing to the formation of durable and improved p-n junctions, are formed only at a KF PDT process time of 50 s. We derived band alignments from the XPS depth profiles by extracting the conduction- and valence-band offsets, and we used optical-pump-THz-probe spectroscopy to measure the ultrafast photocarrier lifetimes related to the defect states following KF PDT. Our key findings can be summarized as follows: (i) photocarrier transport is beneficial at a low barrier height, and (ii) the photocarrier lifetime increases when the K-In-Se phases are formed on the CIGS surface, which allows K+ ions to be effectively substituted into Cu vacancies.
KSP Keywords
Buffer layer, CIGS layer, Cell Efficiency, Chemical bath deposition(CBD), Chemical states, Depth profile, KF PDT, Near surface, P-N junction, Petri net(PN), Reaction model